Nota Kuliah

CALL as a Method to Develop Study Skills

What is CALL?

CALL also known as Computer-Assisted Language Learning is used as a method to develop study skills in classroom.With the new technology,people nowadays use logic thinking to make the learning process fun and looks like game to student.

Student get bored easilly when it comes to traditional teaching system that teachers ussually read,talk and give information without any graphical media.That’s why student can’t develop their study skills with that method.

What is Study Skills?

  • The term “study skills” a general term,which encompases a wide variety of traits,is associated with personal growth and development ranging from attitudes to behaviours.
  • Its is acquired for the purpose of self-development.
  • Study skills includes:-
  1. new learning styles
  2. networking with other students
  3. reading a books or taking notes
  4. participating in a classroom activities
  5. doing basic research
  6. using library or computer-based resources
  7. writing academic papers
  8. presenting papers
  9. managing study time and preparing for examinations

Why Study Skills is Important?

  • The focus in the classroom is shifted from the teacher to the learner
  • The concept of individualized instruction is increasingly gaining importance.

Computer and Language Learning

  • Using slides,charts,tape-record,videos as media of teaching.

The advantage of using CALL method in classroom:

  • Enhance the motivation level of student
  • Teachers can custom any CALL program to the syllabus or courseto increase the of profiency level of students.
  • Imparting individualized instruction
  • No limitation of practise session
  • Student can repeat their task and increase the level of their thinking
  • Have a powerfull access and gives inmmense scope for self-learning.
  • CALLS software has tutorial mode that teach student how to begin their work
  • Backup students file and their work.

Limitation of CALL

  • The author and the programmer do not mostly share similar concerns.
  • There is a chance to add or modify the software
  • The preparation time can be running to hours and days.
  • The next generation of learning will be part of computer generation.All the skills are based on computer only.







Language Learning with Technology

2.0 History of Technology and Language Learning:

•Phonograph, Audio Tape, Telephone
•Radio, Television
•Language Laboratories
•Teaching Machine
•Overhead projector
•Computer Software
•Multimedia Software
•Internet Web Era

2.1 Approach

2.1.1 Behaviourist Approach

•Based on behaviourist theory with the principles of operant conditioning, i.e. a learning that involved rewards and punishments.
•Skinner built a rote and drill teaching machine in 1958, which presented programmed instruction and provided feedbacks to students with correct answers. (Clark, D. 1999)
•Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

2.1.2 AudioLingual Approach

•‘Audiolingual Method’ focuses on phonological and accurate speech.
•Grammatical accuracy is less emphasized with this method. (p.116-117)
•This method has its roots in behaviourism. The procedure emphasizes language habit forming with imitation and repetition.
•Students’ pronunciation and fluency is achieved by listening to dialogue repeatedly and memorization is encouraged.
2.1.3 Cognitive Approach
•The cognitive approach to communicative language teaching is based on the view that learning a language is an unique psycholinguistic process.
•Text-reconstruction Software
–NewReader, Text Tanglers
•Concordancing Software
•Multimedia Simulation Software
2.1.4 Socio-Cognitive Approach
•Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
–Zone of Proximal Development
•Computer-Mediated Communication
–Synchronous tools: Daedalus Interchange writing programs, synchronous chatting (ICQ, MSN)
–Asynchronous tools: E-mail, conferencing systems, ListServs, Newsgroups
•Computer-Assisted Discussions
2.1.5 Natural Approach
Based on language acquisition refers to the subconscious absorption of general principles of grammar through real experience of communication using L2.
2.1.6 Task Based Approach
The task-based model, emphasizes the organization of tasks to facilitate the learners’ participation in tasks which focus on rules and conventions of the language system, communication, problem solving activities, and situational tasks. Example:–—Webquest
Learning Writing with Technologies
•provide motivation for students to write
•enhance students’ sense of audience
•teach students the importance of revision
•reduce stress in writing in target language, and cultivate positive attitudes towards writing.
Benefits of CALL
•More democratic
•Encourages equal participation
•More fully collaborative language learning
•Encourage student to notice and build on other students’ ideas
•More planning time
Criticisms on CALLRandall Davis argues that one of the issues with using technology in language teaching is that language education is being taken over by software developers, hardware vendors and technicians.
•High Cost of Computer Programs
–Dragon Naturally Speaking
•Lack of Technical Support
•Negative Attitudes from teachers
Open Courseware
•2001 MIT initiated the idea of “Open Courseware”
•University course material include: syllabi, lecture, notes, assignments and exams.
•Open source model: free for download and modify
•2006, 90 universities around the world participated.
•2008, 6200 courses were developed.
•Language courses: English, German, French, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish are offered.
•Many linguistics and language studies courses are also offered.
Multimedia Elements


•Media – the medium or the hardware and software that delivers the information or the message
•Advancement in technology also redefines multimedia.
•Add to the definition: purpose.
About Multimedia:
•Having all ‘media’ at the same time:
•What does this do?
•The factor that changes the equation is interactivity
•Linear vs Non-Linear
•True Interactivity.
Multimedia Tools:-
•Two basic types:
Web 2.0

What is Web 2.0?

•Termed first coined in 2005 by Tim O’Reilly.
•Different things to different people.

Key Ideas of Web 2.0

  • Users create the contents.
  • The power of the crowd.
  • Epic Data
  • Architecture of Participation
  • Network Effects
  • Openness
The Technology
  • A quiet revolution towards open source and independent methodologies and tools.
  • These are some of the words normally associated with Web 2.0: AJAX, REST, lightweight programming, APIs.
  • The browser is the main access point to services and tools.
Web 2.0 and Education
  • Sharing is a powerful method to learn.
  • Constructing something for others to learn is itself a very effective method to learn.
  • Constructionism.
  • The ability to synthesis is a goal in higher education, one that is normally missing in our universities.
  • Web 2.0 provides the tools required for this to happen.
The Example of Web 2.0
  1. Twitter:Twitter is a website, owned and operated by Twitter Inc., which
    offers a social networking and microblogging service, allowing its users to
    send and read messages called tweets.
  2. YouTube:YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view,
    and share video clips. It has become a popular form of Web 2.0 new media.
  3. Google Docs:Google Docs is an online word processor, spreadsheet and presentation
    editor that enables anyone to create, store and share instantly and securely,
    and collaborate online in real time.
  4. Skype:Skype, a free software program that
    allows anyone to talk to anyone else in the world over the Internet for free,
    is easy to install and use.
  5. WordPress:WordPress is a free online publishing. It is a web-based software program
    that allows anyone to build and maintain in term of creating and editing a
    website or blog. It was originally intended as an easy way to set up a blog.
  6. Dropbox:Dropbox is a simple online virtual storage utility that allows you to make
    your files accessible from almost anywhere. Designed for those who are
    tired of e-mailing files to themselves and carrying around flash drives,
    Dropbox looks to revolutionize the way you store and share files.
  7. Prezi:Prezi serves a similar function to power Point, but with more powerful and
    interesting features. In Prezi Presentation are created on a ‘canvas’ rather
    than on slides.
  8. SlideShare:SlideShare is a media site for sharing presentations, documents and pdfs.
    SlideShare features a vibrant professional community that regularly
    comments, favorites and downloads content. Content also spreads virally
    through blogs and social networks such as LinkedIn, Facebook and twitter.
    Individuals and organizations upload documents to SlideShare to share ideas,
    connect with others, and generate leads for their businesses. Anyone can
    view presentations and documents on topics that interest them.
  9. Blogger:Generally, a weblog or blog is a personal diary, collaborative space, breakingnews
    outlet and a collection of links to your own private views memos to
    the world. In short, your blog is whatever you want it to be. There are so
    many of them, in various shapes and sizes, and there are no real rules.
  10. Facebook:The Facebook platform allows developers to create Web applications that
    integrate with Facebook’s social network and are delivered via the Facebook
    Web site. Applications run on the developer’s server, and any data unique to
    the application is stored on the developer’s database. Although running on
    an independent server, Facebook applications can query Facebook data in
    order to take advantage of Facebook’s existing social network.

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